How is phenotypic plasticity selected?

How do you determine phenotypic plasticity?

Phenotypic plasticity refers to the ability of a genotype to express different phenotypes depending on the environment in which it resides. For example, genetically identical water flea (Daphnia) clones can differ in their morphology depending on whether reared in the absence or presence of a potential predator.

What can cause phenotypic plasticity?

If the optimal phenotype in a given environment changes with environmental conditions, then the ability of individuals to express different traits should be advantageous and thus selected for. Hence, phenotypic plasticity can evolve if Darwinian fitness is increased by changing phenotype.

How are phenotypes chosen?

In directional selection, a population’s genetic variance shifts toward a new phenotype when exposed to environmental changes. Diversifying or disruptive selection increases genetic variance when natural selection selects for two or more extreme phenotypes that each have specific advantages.

What kind of environment is most likely to create selection for phenotypic plasticity?

Since Bradshaw’s discussion, numerous models of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity indicate that plasticity is favored in heterogeneous environments where different phenotypic optima are present across environments experienced either within the lifetime of an organism or across generations (for example, Berrigan …

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Which of the following would be an example of phenotypic plasticity?

Which of the following provides and example of phenotypic plasticity? … The depth of root growth in response to soil moisture is an example of phenotypic plasticity, a change in growth that occurs in response to environmental conditions.

What do you mean by phenotypic plasticity?

Phenotypic plasticity can be defined as ‘the ability of individual genotypes to produce different phenotypes when exposed to different environmental conditions’ (Pigliucci et al.

Is phenotypic plasticity natural selection?

Natural selection can only directly ‘see’ phenotypic trait values that are expressed in a given environment (individual points on a reaction norm), rather than the plasticity itself (reaction norm slope)—but selection on plasticity will summarize the net effect of selection on the change in trait values expressed, …

What is phenotypic plasticity and why is it important?

Many organisms have the ability to express different phenotypes in response to environmental conditions. Such phenotypic plasticity allows individual organisms to develop appropriate morphological, physiological, or behavioral traits that better fit a particular environment that they encounter.

Can phenotypic plasticity be adaptive?

Phenotypic plasticity is a property of an individual or genotype that may be adaptive, maladaptive or neutral with regard to an individual’s fitness.

Which type of selection maintains stable frequencies?

For example, if heterozygotes at a locus have higher fitness than homozygotes (a scenario known as heterozygote advantage or overdominance), natural selection will maintain multiple alleles at stable equilibrium frequencies.

What phenotypes are favored in directional selection?

In population genetics, directional selection, is a mode of negative natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.

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What are three ways to study the evolution of phenotypic plasticity?

The evolution of plasticity is modeled in three ways: optimality models, quantitative genetic models, and gametic models.

How does phenotypic plasticity influence evolutionary trajectories?

Phenotypic plasticity promotes persistence in a new environment. A change in the environment can release cryptic genetic variation via phenotypic plasticity, in turn impacting the rate of evolutionary responses.

Why is phenotypic plasticity important in plants?

Phenotypic plasticity is considered one of the major means by which plants can cope with environmental factor variability. … In the near future, it will be important to increase long-term studies on natural populations in order to understand plant response to environmental factor fluctuations including climate change.