Mitosis creates two identical daughter cells that each contain the same number of chromosomes as their parent cell. … These new combinations result from the exchange of DNA between paired chromosomes. Such exchange means that the gametes produced through meiosis exhibit an amazing range of genetic variation.
What is the process of making chromosomes?
Somatic cells reproduce by dividing, a process called mitosis. Between cell divisions the chromosomes exist in an uncoiled state, producing a diffuse mass of genetic material known as chromatin.
What is the process of meiosis?
Meiosis is a process where a single cell divides twice to produce four cells containing half the original amount of genetic information. … During meiosis one cell? divides twice to form four daughter cells. These four daughter cells only have half the number of chromosomes? of the parent cell – they are haploid.
What is it called when chromosomes form?
During prophase, the complex of DNA and proteins contained in the nucleus, known as chromatin, condenses. The chromatin coils and becomes increasingly compact, resulting in the formation of visible chromosomes. Chromosomes are made of a single piece of DNA that is highly organized.
What are chromosomes and how are they formed?
In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
What is chromosome composed of?
A chromosome is made up of proteins and DNA organized into genes. Each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.
What is the process of mitosis?
Mitosis is a process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells that occurs when a parent cell divides to produce two identical daughter cells. During cell division, mitosis refers specifically to the separation of the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus.
What three processes occur during meiosis?
Three Ways that Genetic Diversity Occurs During Meiosis
- Meiosis I and II. Meiosis occurs over two generations of cells. …
- Crossing Over. …
- Reduction to Haploid. …
- Random Chromatid Assortment. …
What are the steps in the process of mitosis?
Today, mitosis is understood to involve five phases, based on the physical state of the chromosomes and spindle. These phases are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
What does the metaphase do?
Metaphase is a stage in the cell cycle where all the genetic material is condensing into chromosomes. These chromosomes then become visible. During this stage, the nucleus disappears and the chromosomes appear in the cytoplasm of the cell.
What process created the second chromatid?
A full set of sister chromatids is created during the synthesis (S) phase of interphase, when all the chromosomes in a cell are replicated. The two sister chromatids are separated from each other into two different cells during mitosis or during the second division of meiosis.
What is the name of a section of a chromosome that controls a characteristic?
A gene is a small section of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a particular sequence of amino acids, to make a specific protein. It is the unit of heredity, and may be copied and passed on to the next generation.
Where and how chromosomes are formed?
DNA present on the chromosome not only carries most of the genetic information but also controls the hereditary transference. Chromosomes are essential for the process of cell division, are responsible for replication, division, and creation of daughter cells which contain correct sequences of DNA and proteins.
Where do the chromosomes come from?
Chromosomes come in pairs. Normally, each cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total chromosomes). Half come from the mother; the other half come from the father.
What are the 4 stages of the cell cycle?
In eukaryotes, the cell cycle consists of four discrete phases: G1, S, G2, and M. The S or synthesis phase is when DNA replication occurs, and the M or mitosis phase is when the cell actually divides. The other two phases — G1 and G2, the so-called gap phases — are less dramatic but equally important.