Natural selection can only directly ‘see’ phenotypic trait values that are expressed in a given environment (individual points on a reaction norm), rather than the plasticity itself (reaction norm slope)—but selection on plasticity will summarize the net effect of selection on the change in trait values expressed, …
How does phenotypic plasticity affect natural selection?
Plasticity can affect an individual’s response to selection and so may modify the end result of genetic diversity evolution at population level. Genetic diversity increases the ability of populations or communities to adapt to new environmental conditions. Adaptive plasticity increases individual fitness.
Is phenotypic variation natural selection?
Because natural selection acts directly only on phenotypes, more genetic variation within a population usually enables more phenotypic variation. Some new alleles increase an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce, which then ensures the survival of the allele in the population.
Is phenotypic plasticity genetically determined?
Phytohormones and leaf plasticity
Leaf shape can be determined by both genetics and the environment. … Plants are sessile, so this phenotypic plasticity allows the plant to take in information from its environment and respond without changing its location.
Is phenotypic plasticity evolution?
The ability to pass changes from one generation to the next is a defining characteristic of evolution. This non-heritable change in the mustard seedling is called phenotypic plasticity, meaning that the organism’s phenotype is flexible and can be influenced by the environment.
What is phenotypic plasticity and why is it important?
Many organisms have the ability to express different phenotypes in response to environmental conditions. Such phenotypic plasticity allows individual organisms to develop appropriate morphological, physiological, or behavioral traits that better fit a particular environment that they encounter.
In what way does plasticity relate to natural selection?
In other words, plasticity in the developmental system introduces bias towards specific phenotypes when the environment changes. Since variation is the raw material for natural selection, different kinds of plasticity can shape the path of evolution.
What are examples of phenotypic plasticity?
Phenotypic plasticity refers to the ability of a genotype to express different phenotypes depending on the environment in which it resides. For example, genetically identical water flea (Daphnia) clones can differ in their morphology depending on whether reared in the absence or presence of a potential predator.
What are the three types of natural selection?
There are three types of natural selection that can occur. Stabilizing selection, directional selection or disruptive selection. Each one cause very different things to happen to the population.
What is a phenotypic variation?
Phenotypic variation, then, is the variability in phenotypes that exists in a population. For example, people come in all shapes and sizes: height, weight, and body shape are phenotypes that vary. … All organisms can have phenotypic variation. In plants, flower color and leaf shape are examples of variable phenotypes.
Does phenotypic plasticity initiate developmental bias?
Subsequent adaptation can then arise from the selection on these phenotypes meaning that plasticity sets the initial course for evolution. … This also suggests that plasticity can initiate phenotypic biases through the similar initial responses of ancestral populations.
What kind of environment is most likely to create selection for phenotypic plasticity?
Since Bradshaw’s discussion, numerous models of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity indicate that plasticity is favored in heterogeneous environments where different phenotypic optima are present across environments experienced either within the lifetime of an organism or across generations (for example, Berrigan …
Does phenotypic plasticity change allele frequencies?
The evolution of allele frequencies results from different reproductive efficiencies (fitness between genotypes) and so tends to reduce the genetic diversity within a population. … Through phenotypic plasticity, the plastic traits of individuals are modified without modifying the genetic diversity of the population.
How does phenotypic plasticity differ from evolution?
Phenotypic plasticity can be defined as ‘the ability of individual genotypes to produce different phenotypes when exposed to different environmental conditions’ (Pigliucci et al. 2006). … As with any organismal trait, the way in which an individual responds to environmental influences is subject to evolutionary change.
What is phenotypic plasticity in biology?
Phenotypic plasticity (often termed “plasticity”) is generally defined as the capacity of an individual organism to alter its behavior, physiology/gene expression, and/or morphology (i.e., some aspect of its phenotype) in direct response to changing environmental conditions.
What is the advantage of phenotypic plasticity over gene mutations in creating new phenotypes?
Phenotypic plasticity allows a genotype to produce more than one distinct phenotype [17–19]. Such alternative phenotypes are induced by non-genetic perturbations. Non-genetic perturbations influence the formation of all kinds of phenotypes, but molecular phenotypes illustrate this influence especially well.