What causes cognitive dysfunction in people with Down syndrome?

Vision and hearing disorders as well as hypothyroidism can negatively impact cognitive functioning in people with Down’s syndrome. Dementia that resembles Alzheimer’s disease is common in adults with Down’s syndrome.

How does Down syndrome affect cognitive ability?

The majority of individuals with Down’s syndrome have intelligence quotient (IQ) scores less than 70, consistent with generalised or ‘global’ cognitive problems; however, individuals also show more specific impairments in memory and cognitive flexibility5.

Why do people with Downs Syndrome get dementia?

The presence of beta-amyloid plaques is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. By age 40, most people with Down syndrome have these plaques, along with other protein deposits, called tau tangles, which cause problems with how brain cells function and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s symptoms.

What is the most common cause of cognitive impairment?

While age is the primary risk factor for cognitive impairment, other risk factors include family history, education level, brain injury, exposure to pesticides or toxins, physical inactivity, and chronic conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, heart disease and stroke, and diabetes.

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What are some causes of cognitive disabilities?

Causes of cognitive impairment that occur in adults

  • Alcohol or drug abuse.
  • Brain or spinal cord injury.
  • Certain vitamin deficiencies.
  • Congestive heart failure (deterioration of the heart’s ability to pump blood)
  • Dementia.
  • Infections.

How does a person with Down syndrome act?

Down syndrome also affects a person’s ability to think, reason, understand, and be social. The effects range from mild to moderate. Children with Down syndrome often take longer to reach important goals like crawling, walking, and talking.

What challenges does a person with Down syndrome face?

These complications can include:

  • Heart defects. About half the children with Down syndrome are born with some type of congenital heart defect. …
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) defects. …
  • Immune disorders. …
  • Sleep apnea. …
  • Obesity. …
  • Spinal problems. …
  • Leukemia. …
  • Dementia.

Does Down syndrome get worse with age?

Adults with Down syndrome experience “accelerated aging,” meaning they will age faster than the general population. It is expected that adults with Down syndrome will show physical, medical, and cognitive signs of aging much earlier than what is expected for their age.

What are the common signs of a person with Down syndrome?

Some common physical features of Down syndrome include:

  • A flattened face, especially the bridge of the nose.
  • Almond-shaped eyes that slant up.
  • A short neck.
  • Small ears.
  • A tongue that tends to stick out of the mouth.
  • Tiny white spots on the iris (colored part) of the eye.
  • Small hands and feet.

What age are people with Down syndrome more likely to develop dementia from?

According to the National Down Syndrome Society, about 30% of people with Down syndrome who are in their 50s have Alzheimer’s dementia. About 50% of people with Down syndrome in their 60s have Alzheimer’s dementia.

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What is one of the first signs of cognitive decline?

Signs that you may be experiencing cognitive decline include: Forgetting appointments and dates. Forgetting recent conversations and events. Feeling increasingly overwhelmed by making decisions and plans.

What are the four levels of cognitive impairment?

The four cognitive severity stages spanning normal aging to dementia are:

  • No Cognitive Impairment (NCI) Individuals perceive no decline in cognition and no decline in complex skills that rely on their cognitive abilities. …
  • Subjective Cognitive Impairment (SCI) …
  • Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) …
  • Dementia.

How do you fix cognitive dysfunction?

How can cognitive dysfunction be treated? Cognitive dysfunction can be treated in three ways: (1) using remediation techniques, (2) compensatory strategies, or (3) adaptive approaches. Most experts agree that a comprehensive program of cognitive rehabilitation uses techniques from each approach.