What two molecules make up a chromosome?

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Passed from parents to offspring, DNA contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature unique.

What two molecules make up a visible chromosome?

DNA and histone proteins are packaged into structures called chromosomes.

What are chromosomes made of 2?

Following DNA replication, the chromosome consists of two identical structures called sister chromatids, which are joined at the centromere.

What parts make up a chromosome?

Chromosomes mainly constitute DNA and histone proteins. DNA is wrapped around a core of histone octamer to form a nucleosome. Nucleosomes are the repeating unit present in the chromatin.

How many DNA molecules make up a chromosome?

Each chromosome contains a single very long, linear DNA molecule. In the smallest human chromosomes this DNA molecule is composed of about 50 million nucleotide pairs; the largest chromosomes contain some 250 million nucleotide pairs. The diploid human genome is thus composed of 46 DNA molecules of 24 distinct types.

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What’s a DNA molecule?

DNA is the chemical name for the molecule that carries genetic instructions in all living things. The DNA molecule consists of two strands that wind around one another to form a shape known as a double helix. Each strand has a backbone made of alternating sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups.

Which molecule types are present in chromosomes?

Each chromosome consists of a single, enormously long linear DNA molecule associated with proteins that fold and pack the fine DNA thread into a more compact structure. The complex of DNA and protein is called chromatin (from the Greek chroma, “color,” because of its staining properties).

How are chromosomes formed from chromatin?

The cellular DNA is replicated during interphase, resulting in the formation of two copies of each chromosome prior to the beginning of mitosis. As the cell enters mitosis, chromatin condensation leads to the formation of metaphase chromosomes consisting of two identical sister chromatids.

What are chromosomes composed of Class 9?

Chromosomes are composed of DNA and protein. Functional segments of DNA are called genes.

Where and how chromosomes are formed?

DNA present on the chromosome not only carries most of the genetic information but also controls the hereditary transference. Chromosomes are essential for the process of cell division, are responsible for replication, division, and creation of daughter cells which contain correct sequences of DNA and proteins.

What are the 4 parts of a chromosome?

(1) Chromatid – one of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. (2) Centromere – the point where the two chromatids touch. (3) Short arm (p). (4) Long arm (q).

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What are the 2 common parts of a nucleotide?

A nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule (either ribose in RNA or deoxyribose in DNA) attached to a phosphate group and a nitrogen-containing base.

Which type of molecule makes up DNA?

DNA is a linear molecule composed of four types of smaller chemical molecules called nucleotide bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). The order of these bases is called the DNA sequence.

Is a chromosome a molecule?

Each chromosome is a single molecule of DNA.

Which 2 molecules form the sides backbone of the DNA ladder?

The backbone of DNA consists of a phosphate group and a deoxyribose. These two components are therefore connected by a phosphodiester bond.