Phenotypic plasticity of a trait is variation of the target phenotype for a given genotype in different environments. In particular, a reaction norm characterizes plasticity by describing how the target phenotype for a specific genotype varies as a function of an environmental variable.
How does phenotypic plasticity occur?
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments. … Horizontal lines show that the phenotype is the same in different environments; slanted lines show that there are different phenotypes in different environments, and thus indicate plasticity.
Why does phenotypic plasticity exist?
Many organisms have the ability to express different phenotypes in response to environmental conditions. Such phenotypic plasticity allows individual organisms to develop appropriate morphological, physiological, or behavioral traits that better fit a particular environment that they encounter.
What causes a phenotypic effect?
An organism’s phenotype results from two basic factors: the expression of an organism’s genetic code, or its genotype, and the influence of environmental factors. Both factors may interact, further affecting phenotype.
Which is an example of phenotypic plasticity?
Phenotypic plasticity refers to the ability of a genotype to express different phenotypes depending on the environment in which it resides. For example, genetically identical water flea (Daphnia) clones can differ in their morphology depending on whether reared in the absence or presence of a potential predator.
Who came up with phenotypic plasticity?
The major conceptual advancement for plasticity research was in 1965 when Anthony Bradshaw proposed that phenotypic plasticity and the ability to express alternative phenotypes must be genetically controlled . Some plants develop alternative phenotypes in response to extreme environmental conditions.
What is phenotypic plasticity in biology?
Phenotypic plasticity (often termed “plasticity”) is generally defined as the capacity of an individual organism to alter its behavior, physiology/gene expression, and/or morphology (i.e., some aspect of its phenotype) in direct response to changing environmental conditions.
How does phenotypic plasticity relate to adaptation?
Local adaptation involves genetic differentiation specific to each environment, whereas phenotypic plasticity allows single genotypes to express different phenotypes under diverse environmental conditions.
Is phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary process?
The process of adaptation to novel environmental conditions can occur via two mechanisms: (1) the expression of phenotypic plasticity (the ability of one genotype to express varying phenotypes when exposed to different environmental conditions), and (2) evolution via selection for particular phenotypes, resulting in …
What is phenotypic plasticity quizlet?
What is phenotypic plasticity? The ability of a genotype to produce distinct phenotypes when exposed to different environments throughout its ontogeny.
How do inversions produce phenotypic effects?
In general, inversions do not change the phenotype of the individual unless an excision site of the inversion is within the regulatory or structural region of a gene. The primary change that is seen with inversions is a change in linkage relationships.
How do genotypes determine phenotypes?
The term “phenotype” refers to the observable physical properties of an organism; these include the organism’s appearance, development, and behavior. An organism’s phenotype is determined by its genotype, which is the set of genes the organism carries, as well as by environmental influences upon these genes.
What are the resulting phenotypes?
phenotype, all the observable characteristics of an organism that result from the interaction of its genotype (total genetic inheritance) with the environment. Examples of observable characteristics include behaviour, biochemical properties, colour, shape, and size.
What is phenotypic plasticity in humans?
Phenotypic plasticity refers to the ability of individuals with a given genotype to show variation in phenotypes under different conditions (e.g., Kelly, Panhuis, & Stoehr, 2012; From: Advances in the Study of Behavior, 2019.
Why is phenotypic plasticity important in plants?
Phenotypic plasticity is considered one of the major means by which plants can cope with environmental factor variability. … In the near future, it will be important to increase long-term studies on natural populations in order to understand plant response to environmental factor fluctuations including climate change.
What kind of environment is most likely to create selection for phenotypic plasticity?
Since Bradshaw’s discussion, numerous models of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity indicate that plasticity is favored in heterogeneous environments where different phenotypic optima are present across environments experienced either within the lifetime of an organism or across generations (for example, Berrigan …