How does the flu virus replicate its genome?

The replication of the influenza genome involves two steps: transcription of complimentary RNA (cRNA), followed by transcription of new vRNA copies using the cRNAs as templates.

How does the influenza virus replicate?

The influenza virus has a negative sense RNA genome. In order to replicate, this means that the virus must first produce positive sense mRNA in order to produce necessary enzymes. Once the enzymes are translated, replication can take place.

How is the virus genome replicated?

During attachment and penetration, the virus attaches itself to a host cell and injects its genetic material into it. During uncoating, replication, and assembly, the viral DNA or RNA incorporates itself into the host cell’s genetic material and induces it to replicate the viral genome.

How is the genome configured within influenza viruses?

The influenza viruses are characterized by segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes requiring an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of viral origin for replication. The particular structure of the influenza virus genome and function of its viral proteins enable antigenic drift and antigenic shift.

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Is the flu an RNA replicating virus?

Influenza viruses replicate within the nucleus of the host cell. This uncommon RNA virus trait provides influenza with the advantage of access to the nuclear machinery during replication.

Is influenza lytic or lysogenic?

3.9, fig. 3.16 for a diagram of how influenza virus buds through the host cell membrane.) (1) The cell may lyse or be destroyed. This is usually called a lytic infection and this type of infection is seen with influenza and polio.

How do influenza viruses prime their own mRNA synthesis?

The primers for influenza viral mRNA synthesis are produced from the cell’s own collection of mRNA molecules. The influenza viral RNA polymerase actually cleaves cell mRNAs near their 5′-ends, generating the primers it requires for RNA synthesis.

What are the 5 steps of virus replication?

Most productive viral infections follow similar steps in the virus replication cycle: attachment, penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly, and release.

Where do viral genomes replicate?

Replication is within the cytoplasm. Viruses with segmented genomes for which replication occurs in the cytoplasm and for which the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase produces monocistronic mRNAs from each genome segment.

Where do DNA viruses replicate?

Most double-stranded DNA viruses replicate within the host cell nucleus, including polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and herpesviruses—poxviruses, however, replicate in the cytoplasm. Adenoviruses and herpes viruses encode their own replication factors.

Does influenza B virus integrate into the host genome?

Unlike HIV, the viral RNA does not integrate within the host’s genome, so infections are acute rather than chronic. When messenger RNAs generated from the viral genome in the nucleus pass into the cytoplasm, the viral proteins can then be synthesized using the cell’s own ribosomes or protein-making machinery60.

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What is genome sequencing?

Genome sequencing is figuring out the order of DNA nucleotides, or bases, in a genome—the order of As, Cs, Gs, and Ts that make up an organism’s DNA. The human genome is made up of over 3 billion of these genetic letters.

How many genome segments are in the influenza virus?

The genomes of all influenza viruses are composed of eight single-stranded RNA segments (Figure 1). These RNAs are negative-sense molecules, meaning that they must be copied into positive-sense molecules in order to direct the production of proteins.

What is the pathogenesis of the flu?

The primary mechanism of influenza pathophysiology is a result of lung inflammation and compromise caused by direct viral infection of the respiratory epithelium, combined with the effects of lung inflammation caused by immune responses recruited to handle the spreading virus (Table 1).

How fast does flu virus replicate?

The replication cycle of influenza viruses, from the time of entry to the production of new virus, is very quick, with shedding of the first influenza viruses from infected cells occurring after only 6 hours.