DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the cell’s genetic material, contained in chromosomes within the cell nucleus and mitochondria.
What acid are chromosomes made of?
Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
What two chemicals make up a chromosome?
However, as early as the 1920s, scientists agreed that chromosomes were made of two chemical substances-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein.
What acids are in DNA?
Each strand has a backbone made of alternating sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups. Attached to each sugar is one of four bases–adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). The two strands are held together by bonds between the bases; adenine bonds with thymine, and cytosine bonds with guanine.
Is RNA made of nucleotides?
RNA and DNA are polymers made of long chains of nucleotides. A nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule (either ribose in RNA or deoxyribose in DNA) attached to a phosphate group and a nitrogen-containing base.
What are nucleotides made of?
A molecule consisting of a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate group, and a sugar (deoxyribose in DNA; ribose in RNA).
How are chromosomes formed from chromatin?
The cellular DNA is replicated during interphase, resulting in the formation of two copies of each chromosome prior to the beginning of mitosis. As the cell enters mitosis, chromatin condensation leads to the formation of metaphase chromosomes consisting of two identical sister chromatids.
How many DNA molecules make up a chromosome?
Each chromosome contains a single very long, linear DNA molecule. In the smallest human chromosomes this DNA molecule is composed of about 50 million nucleotide pairs; the largest chromosomes contain some 250 million nucleotide pairs. The diploid human genome is thus composed of 46 DNA molecules of 24 distinct types.
How are chromosomes and proteins?
Structural proteins help the DNA fold into the intricate configurations within the packaged chromosome. DNA in chromosomes is associated with proteins and this complex is called chromatin. … These proteins mediate DNA replication, gene expression, or represent structural proteins important in packaging the chromosomes.
What are the 3 nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids such as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid) are composed of a sugar or derivative of a sugar (ribose or 2-deoxyribose), a nucleobase (cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine, or uracil), and phosphoric acid and found in cell nuclei.
Why are nucleic acids acids?
Explanation: More specifically, this acidity comes from the phosphate groups used in forming DNA and RNA molecules. These phosphate groups are quite similar to phosphoric acid. … That easily-lost proton is what causes nucleic acids to be so acidic.
Is RNA an amino acid?
RNA and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are nucleic acids. … This process uses transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) then links amino acids together to form coded proteins.
What are purines and pyrimidines?
Purines and pyrimidines are the nitrogen bases that hold DNA strands together through hydrogen bonds. … The purines in DNA are adenine and guanine, the same as in RNA. The pyrimidines in DNA are cytosine and thymine; in RNA, they are cytosine and uracil.
What do ribosomes do?
Ribosomes are the sites in a cell in which protein synthesis takes place. … Within the ribosome, the rRNA molecules direct the catalytic steps of protein synthesis — the stitching together of amino acids to make a protein molecule.
What are the 4 types of nucleic acids?
The most common types of nucleic acids are:
- deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
- ribonucleic acid (RNA)
- messenger RNA (mRNA)
- transfer RNA (tRNA)
- ribosomal RNA (rRNA)