What do the bands on each chromosome represent?
Chromosomes are visualized using Giemsa staining (G-banding). Light bands represent early replicating regions, rich in guanine and cytosine nucleotides. Dark bands represent late replicating regions, rich in adenine and thymine nucleotides.
What does chromosome 11 represent?
The shorter arm (p arm) is termed 11p while the longer arm (q arm) is 11q. At about 21.5 genes per megabase, chromosome 11 is one of the most gene-rich, and disease-rich, chromosomes in the human genome.
|Centromere position||Submetacentric (53.4 Mbp)|
|Complete gene lists|
What proteins does chromosome 11 make?
Chromosome 11 likely contains about 1,500 genes. More than 150 of these genes provide instructions for making olfactory receptors, which are proteins that are used to detect different smells. Genes on chromosome 11 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
What causes the dark banding on chromosomes?
A karyotype analysis usually involves blocking cells in mitosis and staining the condensed chromosomes with Giemsa dye. The dye stains regions of chromosomes that are rich in the base pairs Adenine (A) and Thymine (T) producing a dark band.
How do you read a chromosome band?
Each chromosome arm is divided into regions, or cytogenetic bands, that can be seen using a microscope and special stains. The cytogenetic bands are labeled p1, p2, p3, q1, q2, q3, etc., counting from the centromere out toward the telomeres. At higher resolutions, sub-bands can be seen within the bands.
What are the bands on chromosomes called?
The ends of the chromosome are called telomeres. Each chromosome arm is divided into regions, or cytogenetic bands, that can be seen using a microscope and special stains. The cytogenetic bands are labeled p1, p2, p3, q1, q2, q3, etc., counting from the centromere out toward the telomeres.
Why is chromosome 11 important?
Chromosome 11 likely contains 1,300 to 1,400 genes that provide instructions for making proteins. These proteins perform a variety of different roles in the body.
What happens when you are missing chromosome 11?
Jacobsen syndrome is a condition characterized by the deletion of several genes on chromosome 11. Signs and symptoms vary among affected people but often include Paris-Trousseau syndrome (a bleeding disorder); distinctive facial features; delayed development of motor skills and speech; and cognitive impairment.
Where is chromosome 11 in the body?
We have analyzed the human DNA sequences present in a human-mouse somatic cell hybrid line possessing a translocation involving human chromosomes 11 and X. These data indicate that the human insulin gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 11 in the region p13 leads to pter.
How many genes does chromosome 11 have?
The scientists found that chromosome 11 contains more than 1,500 genes, placing it the fourth highest among all of the human chromosomes in gene content.
How does sickle cell affect chromosome 11?
Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutation in the hemoglobin-Beta gene found on chromosome 11. Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. Red blood cells with normal hemoglobin (hemoglobin-A) are smooth and round and glide through blood vessels.
Thus, based on our linkage analysis we propose that the most likely gene order for the short arm of chromosome 11 is centromere-catalase-calcitonin-PTH-HBBC-HRAS1/insulin-tel ome re and that the IGF-II gene is very close to both the HRAS1 and the insulin genes.
What causes chromosome banding?
Chromosome banding refers to alternating light and dark regions along the length of a chromosome, produced after staining with a dye.
What are the two types of abnormalities in the chromosomes?
Chromosome disorders can be classified into two main types; numerical and structural. Numerical disorders occur when there is a change in the number of chromosomes (more or fewer than 46). Examples of numerical disorders include trisomy, monosomy and triploidy.